Archive for the ‘Operating Systems’ Category

OpenSSL creates CA serial file

Saturday, April 12th, 2008

Sguil Logo I have encountered error below when I followed the Sguil OPENSSL.README to generate a certificate with a local CA for my Sguil 0.7.0 installation on FreeBSD 7.0 Release.

[[email protected]]# openssl x509 -req -in sguild.req -CA CA.pem -CAkey privkey.pem -CAserial file.sr1 -out sguild.pem
Signature ok
Getting CA Private Key
Enter pass phrase for privkey.pem:
file.sr1: No such file or directory
82464:error:02001002:system library:fopen:No such file or directory:/usr/src/secure/lib/libcrypto/../../../crypto/openssl/crypto/bio/bss_file.c:352:fopen('file.sr1','r')
82464:error:20074002:BIO routines:FILE_CTRL:system lib:/usr/src/secure/lib/libcrypto/../../../crypto/openssl/crypto/bio/bss_file.c:354:

OpenSSL Logo From the error message, it is obvious that I did not have the file.sr1 there. Since this was the first time I used the CA to sign the certificate, I would need to create serial key containing serial key. So I run -CAcreateserial as below:

[[email protected]]# openssl x509 -req -in sguild.req -CA CA.pem -CAkey privkey.pem -CAcreateserial -out sguild.pem

This created a new file ( containing a serial number. The next time I have to use the -CAserial option when I create new certificate, and specify the path to this file name. The serial number will be incremented each time a new certificate is created.

Sguil 0.70 and Wireshark 1.0.0 Released

Monday, March 31st, 2008

Sguil LogoIt seems a bit late to announce both releases. After a long development process and beta testing, Sguil 0.7.0 has finally been released. It does not take long for modsec2sguil to work with the latest release as well. I have not upgraded my Sguil installation to 0.70 yet, but it won’t take a long time for me to do that because I plan to upgrade the hard disk as well, so every thing will be fresh installation, including the OS - FreeBSD 7.0.

Wireshark LogoIn my opinion, every network analysts should get familiar with these 2 tools, especially Wireshark. In this new version, Wireshark team has fixed few security vulnerabilities, and there is an experimental package for Mac OSX Intel as well.

Other than these releases, I have done a small upgrade from FreeBSD 6.2R to FreeBSD 6.3R recently, which I refer to here. This is only applicable if you are running GENERIC FreeBSD kernel.

[[email protected] /]# fetch

[[email protected] /]# fetch

[[email protected] /]# gpg --verify freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz.asc freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz

[[email protected] /]# tar -xf freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz

[[email protected] /]# sh -f freebsd-update.conf -r 6.3-RELEASE upgrade
Looking up mirrors... 1 mirrors found.
Fetching metadata signature for 6.2-RELEASE from done.
Fetching metadata index... done.
Fetching 1 metadata files... done.
Inspecting system... done.

WARNING: This system is running a "nsm-smpkernel-generic" kernel, which is not a
kernel configuration distributed as part of FreeBSD 6.2-RELEASE.
This kernel will not be updated: you MUST update the kernel manually
before running " install".

The following components of FreeBSD seem to be installed:
src/base src/bin src/contrib src/crypto src/etc src/games src/gnu
src/include src/krb5 src/lib src/libexec src/release src/rescue src/sbin
src/secure src/share src/sys src/tools src/ubin src/usbin world/base
world/catpages world/manpages

The following components of FreeBSD do not seem to be installed:
kernel/generic kernel/smp world/dict world/doc world/games world/info

Does this look reasonable (y/n)? y

Fetching metadata signature for 6.3-RELEASE from done.
Fetching metadata index... done.
Fetching 1 metadata patches. done.
Applying metadata patches... done.
Fetching 1 metadata files... done.
Inspecting system... done.
Preparing to download files... done.
Fetching 6233 patches.....10....20....30.................6230. done.
Applying patches... done.
Fetching 647 files... done.

The following files will be removed as part of updating to 6.3-RELEASE-p1:

[[email protected] /]# sh -f freebsd-update.conf install
[[email protected] /]# shutdown -r now

[[email protected] /]# sh -f freebsd-update.conf install
[[email protected] /]# shutdown -r now

Linux or FreeBSD is faster now

Saturday, March 8th, 2008

I wrote about FreeBSD 7 Release on the other day and mentioned it has 15% better performance than best performing Linux kernel when run on multicore systems. There is a report from Slashdot that mentioned “Linux kernel developer Nick Piggin reran the benchmark today and came to a different conclusion.” Ok, which one is faster now? Do we really care about that?

Sysbench was used to do the benchmark, and mySQL was used for the test.
Enjoy the benchmark result here.

Ourmon 2.8 on FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE

Monday, March 3rd, 2008

FreeBSD LogoFreeBSD Team announced the release of FreeBSD 7.0-REL recently which introduces many new features and improvements. There is significant performance improvement for FreeBSD on those multi core systems and it has 15% better performance than best performing Linux kernel. I can’t wait to turn all my NSM sensors which are running on FreeBSD 6.2-REL to 7.0-REL.

Before that, Ourmon, the network monitoring and anomaly detection system had released version 2.8, which introduces a few exciting features as well. The most wanted THREADED (for me) feature is supported now. Although it is still under experimental and only x86(amd compatible) primitive is used for spinlocks, I will definitely give it a try on Quad core NSM sensor(AMD64) which has Ourmon disabled due to massive packets dropped during peak hours.

Ourmon graph:

The installation is pretty straight forward and easy since you just have to run and change the home net address. Some people may want to change their network interface and web directory during installation, but the rest settings are default or being auto detected.

This is my installation of Ourmon 2.8 on FreeBSD 7.0-REL.
1. Install libpcre from ports. (/usr/ports/devel/pcre)
2. Install libpcap from ports. (/usr/ports/net/libpcap)
3. Install rrdtool from ports (/usr/ports/databases/rrdtool)
4. Install apache from ports. (/usr/ports/www/apache13, 20, or 22)
5. Run ourmon’s

Here is the output.

# ./
configuration script to install ourmon.
note: default is suggested like so: [default]
note: just hit carriage-return for default actions
Would you like to install the ourmon probe? [y]
Front-end configuration phase started ####################
pcap in general needs to be reinstalled from before ourmon install
found pcap lib in /usr/local/lib/libpcap.a - which is a good thing
hit CR to continue:

Would you like to compile/install ourmon? [y]
ourmon build: using make -f Makefile.bsd LIBS=/usr/local/lib/libpcre.a /usr/local/lib/libpcap.a
`ourmon' is up to date.

Next we determine the ourmon config/filter file to use.
By default, we use the local /usr/local/mrourmon/etc/ourmon.conf to provide input filters to ourmon.
WARNING: you should read/edit/understand ourmon.conf!
Do you want to use another ourmon.conf file in some other directory than /usr/local/mrourmon/etc? [n]

Next we suggest one modification to the ourmon.conf file.

If this is a default install, you should change the following config directive:

        topn_syn_homeip network/netmask

and set it to your home network and mask (A.B.C.D/maskbits style)
Do you want to change the topn_syn home network address? [y]
note: the home net address may be a subnet or host address (/32).
enter a home net address and mask. []

Do you want to install the ourmon startup script in the ourmon bin? [y]
WARNING: the default for the interface may not be what you want.
WARNING: use #ifconfig -a to determine interfaces.
Please enter the input interface name to sniff from: [le0]
input interface is le0

Please enter directory for probe output files (mon.lite, etc.): [/usr/local/mrourmon/tmp]
probe output directory name is: /usr/local/mrourmon/tmp

Creating bin/ driver for startup of ourmon. placed in ourmon bin for ourmon front-end/probe startup
./ start

copy the startup script (bin/ to /usr/local/etc/rc.d for boot startup? [y]
ourmon front-end install complete
ourmon front-end build worked

You should now run /usr/local/mrourmon/bin/ to start ourmon

e.g., # /usr/local/mrourmon/bin/ start

You can use stop to stop ourmon

part 2: install the back-end,, etc. (web part)? [y]
Back-end configuration phase started ######################################
We need a local web directory for generated web output.
hint: the webpath given here is a guess: give the CORRECT base web directory with /ourmon at the end
enter absolute web server web path directory: [/usr/local/www/data/ourmon] /usr/local/www/ourmon
your output web path is: /usr/local/www/ourmon

Do you want to create the web directory for ourmon?
HINT: good idea if it doesn't exist. [y]
mkdir: /usr/local/www/ourmon: File exists
ln: web.pages: File exists
cp bard/* /usr/local/www/ourmon/bard
cp /usr/local/mrourmon/bin
cp ombatch*.pl /usr/local/mrourmon/bin
cp /usr/local/mrourmon/bin
cp /usr/local/mrourmon/bin
chmod +x /usr/local/mrourmon/bin/*.sh
chmod +x /usr/local/mrourmon/bin/*.pl

INFO only: also setting up logging directory (if needed)
creating log rrddata tmp dirs, if necessary, in /usr/local/mrourmon
hit CR to continue:

If different, enter front-end output file directory absolute path: [/usr/local/mrourmon/tmp]
probe output file path (back-end input/s) is /usr/local/mrourmon/tmp

Now we copy supplied .html files to the web directory for later editing
do you want to copy base web files to the web directory? [y]

INFO only: setting up local rrdbase directory at /usr/local/mrourmon/rrddata
your runtime rrds get stored in this directory, along with the rrd error log file
if you create new BPF filters, check rrdbase/ourmon.log for errors.
hit CR to continue:

We need a UDP weight threshold for UDP scan alerts
what should the weight be (default is given): [10000000]

Install backend crontab commands in /etc/crontab (default answer y)?: [y]

ourmon system config complete
see INSTALL for post-config sanity checking

This is the error when I tried to start the ourmon.

[[email protected] /usr/local/etc/rc.d]# ./ start
sysctl: unknown oid 'debug.bpf_bufsize'
sysctl: unknown oid 'debug.bpf_maxbufsize'

When I opened the, I found these lines under start_om():

sysctl -w debug.bpf_bufsize=8388608
sysctl -w debug.bpf_maxbufsize=8388608

In FreeBSD, they are called net.bpf.bufsize and net.bpf.maxbufsize. So just change them to these will do.

sysctl -w net.bpf.bufsize=8388608
sysctl -w net.bpf.maxbufsize=8388608

If you have your own value set in /etc/sysctl.conf, just comment these 2 lines.

I will post up as soon as Ourmon with threaded support is successfully setup on AMD64 system.